About Benzalkonium Chloride

Benzalkonium chloride is a homologous series of quaternary ammonium compounds.  The alkyl substituent is comprised of even-numbered linear aliphatic hydrocarbons, C8 through C18, with greater than 70% of the product being comprised of the C12 and C14 homologs.  Benzalkonium chloride is used as a biocide, surfactant, and phase transfer agent for chemical reactions. The identity, purity, structural isomer distribution, and water content of benzalkonium chloride as a raw ingredient, also known as BZK, BKZ, and BAC, can be determined by SGS PSI.  SGS PSI can also determine the concentration of benzalkonium chloride in manufactured products.

  • Approaches

    Confirmation of the identity of benzalkonium chloride is accomplished by using a series of wet chemistry analytical methods in accordance with the applicable USP Monographs.

    The purity of benzalkonium chloride and the structural isomer distribution is determined using an HPLC system with a gradient elution mobile phase and UV detection of the eluting aromatic compounds.

    The water content of benzalkonium chloride is determined by Karl Fischer titration.  During the Karl Fischer titration, water is consumed by a chemical reaction with iodide and sulfur dioxide in the presence of a base.

  • Sample Considerations

    As a raw material, benzalkonium chloride is analyzed as a solid powder.  A sample size of 10 grams is enough to conduct the benzalkonium chloride tests.
    Products are tested in the form that they are received; solids, liquids, pastes, or gels.  In the case of liquids, pastes, and gels a sample size of 500 mL is enough whereas in the case of solids a 100-gram sample is enough for benzalkonium chloride testing.

    Our staff will guide the process to ensure the proper amount of a sample is submitted in order to achieve excellent data. Contact us with specific questions about your compendial USP testing of benzalkonium chloride needs.


  • Experience

    SGS Polymer Solutions has conducted cGMP compliant benzalkonium chloride analysis in our FDA-registered laboratory for pharmaceutical clients.  We have also analyzed manufactured products for the presence of benzalkonium chloride.

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